vii. JACOB PICTON, born 1797/8 at Whitechurch. The date for his baptism has yet to be established and it is unclear without further research if it would be in the parish registers for Whitechurch or at Penygroes Chapel. If the parish registers of Whitechurch look complete for those years, and the entry is missing, then it is very likely he was baptised at Penygroes Chapel. The early registers there are clearly deficient.
Jacob Picton was a witness to the marriage of his brother, Thomas Picton, at Whitechurch in 1811. Jacob Picton of Llanboidy married Mary Lewis of Llanwinio on 1 November 1821 at St. Brynach Church, Llanboidy [Witnesses: William Evans and Jason Thomas]. Mary Lewis was bapt. 29 October 1800, the daughter of Thomas and Mary Lewis of Ysgarddangoed farm in the parish of Llanwinio. Jacob Picton became a farmer at Duffryn Pwdrin farm, Cymfelin Mynach, owned by the Lloyd family of Bronwydd. Some of the previous history of Duffryn Pwdrin farm is included below. The various spellings of Duffryn Pwdrin farm are given as written in the original Bronwydd manuscripts. Duffryn Pwdrin is the name used on the 1839 Tithe Map.
On 18 June 1803 there was an agreement between John Jones of Haverfordwest and John Thomas of Diffrin Pedrin for a lease for three lives of Diffrin Pedrin and Gellyogof in the parish of Llanboidy, at a rent of £38, six couples of fat hens at Shrovetide and planting eighteen young ash trees annually [Bronwydd MSS No. 1968]. John Jones then went on to contract for the redemption of land tax on a number of his properties, including Dyffrin Pedrin in the parish of Llanboidy, on 22 September 1803 [Bronwydd MSS No. 1942]. Bronwydd MSS No. 1850, dated 8 October 1812, is a lease agreement between Abraham Leach of Corston, Esq., Mary Lloyd of Bronwydd, widow, William Harry of Nantlledfron in the parish of Clydey, farmer and John Thomas of Duffryn Pedryn in the parish of Llanboidy, Gent, of the farm of Nantlledfron in Clydey. This lease establishes that the occupier of Dyffryn Pwdrin in 1812 was John Thomas.
Another important series of transactions for the Picton family begins with Bronwydd MSS No. 1969 of 20 May 1818, between John Thomas of Dufryn Pedryn in the parish of Llanboidy and Mary Lloyd of Bronwydd, widow. This concerns the surrender of a lease of Blaendifrin Pedrin and Gellogof in the parish of Llanboidy. The 1839 Tithe Map will need to be re-examined to determine if Blaendyffryn Pwdrin is a separate farm from Dyffryn Pwdrin. Then, of considerable interest, are two further documents, Bronwydd MSS Nos. 1875 and 1879, both dated 25 June 1818. One concerns bidders for a lease of Dyfrin Pedrin, with a note of the letting of the same to Owen Picton. There is also an agreement between Mary Lloyd of Bronwydd, Owen Picton of Lanrhyd [Glanrhyd] in the parish of Trelech a’r Bettws and David Davies of Tyllwyd in the parish of Meline, farmers, for a lease of Dyffryn Pedryn in the parish of Llanboidy.
Thus it could be that Owen Picton of Trelech signed the lease, but his younger brother, Jacob Picton, was actually installed to farm the property. David Davies was a cousin to Jacob Picton. Jacob Picton was a tenant farmer at the 95 acre Dyffryn Pwdryn [Pedryn] Farm at Cwmfelin Mynach in the parish of Llanboidy from at least 1822. However, as Land Tax Returns do not survive for Carmarthenshire at all, it will be necessary to conduct research in the Estate Records of the Lloyd family of Bronwydd at the NLW.
In 1839 Thomas Lloyd, Esq., owned other land in Llanboidy, including Waun Gwn, occupied by John Evans (26 acres 3 roods 11 perches); Part of Tycoed, occupied by (?) (58 acres 1 rood 19 perches); Quarry, occupied by Henry Evans (125 acres 2 roods 0 perches) and Porth Twyll Cottages, Gardens and Slung (?), lately occupied by John Phillips and now occupied by William Phillips (1 acre 2 roods and 31 perches).
Bronwydd MSS Nos. 6889-6901 concern Presentments at the Courts Leet and Courts Baron of the town and corporation of Newport, 30 June 1818 to 29 September 1864, and MSS Nos. 6674-6689 concern Presentments the Courts Leet and Courts Baron of the Barony of Kemes, 1 May 1817 to 25 October 1853 and could be of interest in relation to the above leases. Bronwydd MSS Nos. 6621 to 6624 concern Rentals of Chief Rents in the Barony of Kemes, including the town of Newport, 1825 to 1827; MSS Nos. 6411-6420 concern Rentals of Chief Rents and Enclosure Rents in the Barony of Kemes, 1843 to 1848 Bronwydd MSS Nos. 4436-4443 concern Schedules of Deeds belonging to the Bronwydd Estate, 1847-1849.
The area of the parish of Llanboidy was 10,666 acres 3 roods and 17 perches according to the Tithe Schedule of 14 March 1839. The survey was made at a scale of 6 chains or 13.33 inches to 1 mile. Jacob Picton was a tenant farmer of 98 acres 3 roods and 17 perches of land at Duffryn Pwdrin farm [spelt thus], Tithe Schedule numbers 1338 to 1370. The actual rent-charge arising from the Land Tax was payable to two parties for Duffryn Pwdrin. The land numbered 1338 to 1349 was taxable to Richard Price; the land numbered 1350 to 1354 paid tax to Ernest Augustus, Earl Vaughan and Lisburne, lands numbered 1355 to 1370 again paid tax to Richard Price. A Table of their individual areas and utilisation in 1839 is given below.
THE EXTENT OF DUFFRYN PWDRIN, LLANBOIDY, 1839
Duffryn Pwdrin formed part of the hamlet of Gellyogol, and there were six hamlets overall within the parish of Llanboidy in 1839. The owner of the farm was Thomas Lloyd of Bronwydd (1788-1845). Thomas Lloyd of Bronwydd was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Thomas Davies Lloyd (1820-1876). On his death he was succeeded by Sir Marteine Lloyd (1851-1933), who donated the first tranche of Bronwydd MSS to the National Library of Wales in 1933.
Jacob Picton was probably still at the farm in 1843, as the inscription on the tombstone of his son, Thomas Picton, in the graveyard attached to Ramoth Chapel, says he was from Duffryn Pwdrin. Further research at either the Carmarthenshire Record Office or the National Library of Wales in the Bronwydd MSS may give further details of when Jacob Picton occupied Duffryn Pwdrin farm, and when his wife’s parents were at Ysgarddangoed. This research should also help tie down when Jacob Picton migrated from Whitechurch to Llanboidy, to become a tenant farmer at Dyffryn Pwdrin.
On 3 September 1847 there was an agreement between Thomas Davies Lloyd of Bronwydd, Esq. and Jonah David of Rhyd y gath in the parish of Llanfyrnach, blacksmith, for a demise of land, being part of Dyffryn Pwdryn in the parish of Llanboidy [Bronwydd MSS No. 1896]. This could be nothing more than the leasing of a small amount of the farmland at Duffryn Pwdrin so that a blacksmith’s forge could be set up at Cwmfelyn Mynach. More significantly there is a list, dated 20 March 1848, from Thomas Davies Lloyd to a number of tenants on his estate in Cemais giving them notice to quit [Bronwydd MSS No. 6468-6479]. Bronwydd MSS No. 6395-6406 concern Chief Rents and Enclosure Rents in the Barony of Kemes, 1850-1862. Bronwydd MSS 3119 to 3179 concern agreements for the letting of various farms belonging to the Bronwydd Estate in the Counties of Pembroke, Cardigan and Carmarthen, 1871-1927.
Jacob Picton was living at Dyffryn Pwdrin farm in the parish of Llanboidy in the 1841 Census, a farmer, aged 45, with his wife Mary Picton, aged 41 [HO 107/1382/11/50]. Jacob Picton was living at Monk Mill, Llanwinio, in the 1851 Census, aged 53, a miller and owner of 13 acres, born at Whitechurch in Pembrokeshire, and employing 1 labourer [HO 107/2474/362]. Also living there were his wife, Mary Picton, aged 51, born at Llanwinio, and their children Stephen Picton (25), Anne Picton (23), Martha Picton (14), Owen Picton (12) and John Picton (10), all born at Llanboidy. An examination of the Tithe Map Schedule for the parish of Llanwinio [IR 29/47/67], made on 6 June 1848, showed that Jacob Picton was occupying two pieces of land only, Field Nos. 1606 and 1607 on the corresponding Tithe Map [IR 30/47/67], which contained the Mill (not named). The combined total area was only 3 acres 0 roods and 12 perches, and this land was owned by William Phillips.
Sourounding the Mill were the fields which belonging to Ysgraddaugoed Farm, which was occupied by William Phillips and owned by Sophia Thomas. This was a farm of some . In the 1851 Census William Phillips was living at Esgarddaugoed Farm, a farmer aged 34, born at Llanboidy [HO 107/2474/361]. Also living with him were his wife, Anna Phillips, aged 35, born at Llanboidy and their children: James Phillips (15); Edward Phillips (13); Mary Phillips (11); Martha Phillips (8) and Catherine Phillips (3), all born at Llanwinio. A William Phillips married an Anne Lewis on 1 September 1835 at Llanboidy [Witnesses: ]. William Phillips was living at Pencnuck Farm in the parish of Llanboidy in the 1861 Census, a farmer of 170 acres, aged 48, born at Llanboidy [RG 9/4146/22]. Also living with him were his wife, Anne Phillips, aged 49, born at Llanboidy and their children: James Phillips (22); Edward Phillips (20); Mary Phillips (18); Martha Phillips (16); Catherine Phillips (13) and William Phillips (8).
In the 1871 Census William Phillips was still living at Pencnuck Farm, a farmer aged 60, born at Llanboidy [RG 10/5505/28]. Also living with him were his wife, Ann Phillips, aged 62, born at Llanboidy and their children, Edward Phillips, aged 30 and Catherine Phillips, aged 22. In the 1881 Census William Phillips was living at Pencnwc, Llanboidy, a farmer of 120 acres, aged 67, born at Llanboidy [RG 11/5402/25]. Also living with him were his wife, Anne Phillips, aged 70, born at Llanboidyand their children, Edward Phillips, aged 40; Catherine Phillips, aged 31and John James Jones, their grandson, aged 14, all born at Llanboidy. Neither William Phillips nor Anne Phillips seem to be living at the time of the 1891 Census. There are two possible death entries for William Phillips [Carmarthen, December 1887, 11a 505, aged 80; Carmarthen, September 1889, 11a 499, aged 82]. Likewise there are two possible death entries for Anne Phillips [Carmarthen, March 1885, 11a 612, aged 81; Carmarthen, September 1889, 11a 501, aged 85]. These first entry of each of these two looks the more probable death entry.
In the 1851 Census, Duffryn Pwdrin farm was occupied by Mary Evans, a widow aged 66, a farmer of 96 acres, born at Kilrhedyn, Pembrokeshire [HO 107/2475/34]. In the 1861 Census Dyffryn Pwdrin [Pwdryn] farm was occupied by Joshua Evans, a farmer of 95 acres, aged 45, born at Kilrhedyn, and his wife, Ketura Evans, aged 32, born at Llangan [RG 9/4146/26]. Also living with them were their two sons, Daniel Evans, aged 7, born at Llanboidy and David Evans, aged 4, born at Llanboidy. They also had one male and one female servant living in. Their marriage is probably the one recorded in Narberth Registration District between Joshua Evans and Keturah William [Narberth, December 1852, 11a 997]. This marriage certificate would give the name of his father, which could be useful to know.
Jacob Picton, a miller, died on 5 July 1853 at Felyn minch [Cwmfelyn Mynach], Llanwinio, aged 55, from consumption, according to his death certificate. Anne Evans of Castell, Llanwinio, was present at his death. This debilitating illness could also help explain why he had given up farming at Duffryn Pwdrin by the time of the 1851 Census. Jacob Picton was buried in the churchyard attached to Ramoth Chapel, Cwmfelin Mynach, on 5 August 1853, aged 58 [Carmarthen, September 1853, 11a 323] and a tombstone survives there to his memory, alongside similar ones to two of his sons.
A Mary Evans was a miller and a widow living at Cwmbach Mill in the parish of Llanwinio in the 1861 Census, aged 59, born at Llanboidy [RG 9/4145/60]. Also living with her were her two children, Sarah Evans, aged 20, a mill labourer, born at Llanwinio and Rees Evans, aged 24, an agricultural labourer, born at Llanwinio. There was no Minister given at Moriah Independent Chapel in the 1861 Census [RG 9/4145/80].
Mary Picton was a farmer of 15 acres at Monk Mill, Llanwinio, in the 1861 Census, aged 60, living with her two youngest sons, Owen Picton, aged 23, a miller, and John Picton, aged 21, a farmer’s son, and a house servant, Elizabeth Morgans, aged 17, born at Llangan [RG 9/4145/82]. The immediate neighbours of Mary Picton in the 1861 Census of Llanwinio were as follows:
Mary Picton, a widow, was still a farmer of 16 acres at Monk Mill, Llanwinio, in the 1871 Census, aged 70, with her youngest child, John Picton, aged 29, a miller, still living with her and a servant, Anne Morris, aged 17 [RG 10/5504/68]. Mary Picton was living at the Mill, Llanwinio, in the 1881 Census, a farmer of 12 acres, together with her son, John Picton, a widower aged 39, a corn miller [RG 11/5401/110]. Mary Picton was still living at the time of the 1891 Census, a widow and retired farmer, aged 92, at Monk Mill, Llanwinio, with her youngest son, John Picton and his family [RG 12/4520/110]. Mary Picton died on 18 October 1891 at Cwmfelin Mynach, aged 93, and was buried at Ramoth Chapel on 28 October 1891 [Carmarthen, December 1891, 11a 802]. Jacob and Mary Picton were the parents of:
a. THOMAS PICTON, born August 1822 and bapt. 12 October 1822 at Penygroes Chapel, Eglwyswen, aged 7 weeks. He probably died young, as he is followed by Thomas Picton, born around 1830/1.
b. MARY PICTON, born February/March 1824 at Llanwinio and bapt. 14 August 1824 at Penygroes Chapel, Eglwyswen, aged 5 months. She was living with her parents in the 1841 Census, aged 17 [HO 107/1382/11/50]. Mary Picton, daughter of Jacob Picton of Dyffryn Pwdryn, a farmer, married David Evans, a shoemaker, son of Ebenezer Evans, a miller, of Cwmfelyn Old Meeting House, at Llanboidy church on 28 October 1847 [Witnesses: (?); Narberth, December 1847, 26 967]. David and Mary Evans were living at Tynewydd bach, Llanboidy, in the 1861 Census, with their family [RG 9/4146/25]. David Evans was a cobbler aged 35, born at Llanwinio, and his wife was aged 37, born at Llanboidy.
In the 1871 Census David and Mary Evans had moved to Glamorganshire, and were living at Hirwaun Road, Aberdare, aged 45 and 47 respectively, he was a clog maker [RG 10/5404/63]. Mary Evans, a widow aged 57 and a housekeeper, born at Llanboidy, was living at 1 Prospect Place, Aberdare, in the 1881 Census [RG 11/5320/60]. Mary Evans, a widow aged 67, born at Llanboidy, was living at 3 Prospect Place, Aberdare, in the 1891 Census [RG 12/4443/38]. 1901 Census. As well as her three children, a Jacob Picton was living with her as a boarder, aged 28, an engineer, born at Llanfyrnach. David and Mary Evans were the parents of:
i. DAVID EVANS, born 1851/2 at Llanboidy. He was living with his parents in the 1861 Census, aged 9 [RG 9/4146/25]. He was living with his parents in the 1871 Census, a farmer’s man aged 19 [RG 10/5404/63]. He was living with his mother at Aberdare in the 1881 Census, an ore miner aged 29 [RG 11/5320/60].
ii. (H)ANNA(H) EVANS, born 1855/6 at Llanboidy. She was living with her parents in the 1861 Census, aged 5 [RG 9/4146/25]. She was living with her parents in the 1871 Census, aged 16 [RG 10/5404/63].
iii. EBENEZER EVANS, born 1858/9 at Llanboidy. He was living with his parents in the 1861 Census, aged 2 [RG 9/4146/25]. He was living with his parents in the 1871 Census, a butcher aged 12 [RG 10/5404/63].
iv. STEPHEN THOMAS EVANS, born 1861 at Llanboidy [Carmarthen, December 1861, 11a 589]. He was living with his parents in the 1861 Census, aged 2 months [RG 9/4146/25]. He was living with his parents in the 1871 Census, a scholar aged 10 [RG 10/5404/63]. He was living with his mother in the 1881 Census at Aberdare, an ore miner aged 20 [RG 11/5320/60].
v. JOHN REES EVANS, born 1866/7 at Aberdare. He was living with his parents in the 1871 Census, aged 4 [RG 10/5404/63]. He was living with his mother in the 1881 Census, an ore miner aged 14 [RG 11/5320/60]. He was living with his mother in the 1891 Census, a coal miner aged 24, born at Aberdare [RG 12/4443/38].
vi. SOPHIA EVANS, born 1872/3 at Aberdare. She was living with her mother in the 1881 Census, a scholar aged 8 [RG 11/5320/60]. She was living with her mother in the 1891 Census, a domestic servant aged 18, born at Aberdare [RG 12/4443/38].
c. STEPHEN PICTON, born 27 December 1825 at Eglwyswen (information on tombstone). He was living with his parents in the 1841 Census at Dyffryn Pwdrin farm, located just to the west of the hamlet of Cwmfelin Mynach in the parish of Llanboidy, aged 15 [HO 107/1382/11/50/]. He was living with his parents at Monk Mill in the parish of Llanwinio in the 1851 Census, aged 25, born at Llanboidy and employed on their farm [HO 107/2474/362].
Stephen Picton, a farmer of Cwmfelin [Mynach], Llanwinio, aged 25, the son of Jacob Picton, a miller, married Eliza Rees, the daughter of James Rees, a farmer of Dyffryn Broydyn [spelt thus in the marriage register] on 3 July 1851 at Ramoth Baptist Chapel, Cwmfelin Mynach, in the parish of Llanwinio [Witnesses: James Evans and Thomas Nicholas]. There is a farm called Dyffryn Boidryn in the parish of Llanboidy, located about 1 mile north of Cwmfelyn Mynach, which is how the name of the hamlet is spelt today. The border between the two parishes of Llanboidy and Llanwinio bisects the hamlet of Cwmfelin Mynach, with Ramoth Chapel lying to the east in the parish of Llanwinio, and the farm of Dyffryn Pwdrin lying to the west of Cwmfelin Mynach and in the parish of Llanboidy. Eliza Rees was only aged 18 at the time of her marriage.
On 8 December 1820 a bond was drawn up between Mary Lloyd of Bronwydd, Co. Cardigan, widow, and John Howells of Dyffryn Broydyn in the parish of Llanboidy, gent., for 340 pounds plus interest [Bronwydd MS No. 2091].
It may be worth noting that in the 1851 Religious Census of Wales that the parish of Llanwinio had three Chapels [The Religious Census of Wales, A Calendar of the Returns Relating to Wales, Volume I, South Wales, Eds. I. G. Jones and D. Williams, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1976, pp. 355-356]. Cwmbach Chapel was a Calvinistic Methodist Chapel where John Williams of Caerchedydd was the Steward. Moriah Chapel was an Independent Chapel, and the Minister was J. Davies of Glandŵr, St. Clears [N.B. This information is incorrect in the 1851 Census; John Davies was actually Minister of Glandŵr Independent Chapel in the parish of Llanfyrnach, which lies just in the County of Pembrokeshire, see pp. 483-484]. Moriah Chapel was a branch of Glandŵr, and as such its records were kept with those of Glandŵr Chapel. Ramoth Chapel at Cwmfelin Mynach was a Baptist Chapel, and the Minister in 1851 was William Enoc[h] Jones, who lived at Cwmfelin Mynach. In 1840 Ramoth Chapel had about 90-100 members.
It is, perhaps, worthy of note also that in 1851 John Williams was also the Minister of Bethlehem Independent Chapel in the parish of St. Clears [p. 338] and that William Davies was Minister of the Independent Chapel of Rhydyceisiaid in the parish of Llangynin [p. 337]. There is no guarantee, of course, that because Jacob Picton, his father, clearly worshipped at Ramoth Chapel, Llanwinio, that his son, Stephen Picton, did likewise. Bethlehem Chapel itself is situated in the village of Pwll-Trap, about a mile to the west of the centre of St. Clears, and less than a mile from the farm at Gorse Gandrill, which lies further west still. It would be worth checking the 1851 Census for the entries relating to Bethlehem and Rhydyceisiaid Chapels. John Davies was the Minister at Glandŵr Chapel in the parish of Llanfyrnach, in the 1861 Census, aged 57, born at Llanarth in Cardiganshire [RG 9/4181/38]. He was unmarried, and it would look like he was a younger brother to William Davies of Rhydyceisiaid. John Davies was still the Minister at Glandŵr Chapel in the 1871 Census, aged 67, born at Llanarth [RG 10/5544/102]. There was no Minister living at Bethlehem, St. Clears, in the 1871 Census [RG 10/5494/15]. John Evans, a clergyman, was living at Clare Brook, St. Clears, aged 73, born at Abernant [RG 10/5494/11]. It could be that no Census Return for Llangynin survives for 1871.
Rhydyceisiaid Chapel in the parish of Llangynin was closely associated with Bethlehem Chapel at Pwll-Trap in the parish of St. Clears. In the 1861 Census William Davies was the Independent Minister living at the Chapel House [Rhydyceisiaid] in the parish of Llangynin, aged 68, born at Llanarth in Cardiganshire [RG 9/4138/20]. His wife, Sarah Davies, aged 52, was living with him, born at Llangan in Carmarthenshire. Frances Howells, the daughter of his wife, was aged 20, born at Llangan, was living there, as was also a student of divinity, Owen Jones, aged 16, born at Trelech. Of course, the 1861 Census of St. Clears is missing – which is unfortunate in trying to locate the Minister of Bethlehem, John Williams. It is, perhaps, worth recalling the letters from Thomas Picton of Hoboken, New Jersey, to Owen Picton of Glanrhyd in Trelech were deposited by Mrs Williams of Mount Pleasant in the parish of Llangynin, in 1956.
The 1861 Census for Llanwinio shows no Independent Minister residing in the parish [to be checked].
Stephen Picton and his family moved from Cwmfelin Mynach in the parish of Llanwinio to the parish of St. Clears around 1852, and settled at the farm of Gorse Gandrill in that parish from at least January 1853 to around 1865. On modern OS maps the farm is spelt as Gorsgandrill, and is situated about a mile west of St. Clears, past the growing village of Pwll-Trap, and about 100 yards north of the main A40 road from St. Clears to Haverfordwest, down an unmade track off the main road. On the 1838 Tithe Schedule the homestead of the farm is not named, but a field is known and spelt as Corse Gandrill.
Unfortunately the 1861 Census for St. Clears has not survived. Stephen Picton is not indexed in the 1861 Census index for Carmarthenshire, which is available online. This helps to provide confirmatory evidence that he and his family have to be living at Gorse Gandrill. This is an old farm and did have a well going down some 20 feet originally, which was probably the reason the farm was settled there. The farm was visited in May 2005, and this fact emerged in conversation with the occupier, who was in the process of refurbishing and modernising the farmhouse.
On the Tithe Map Schedule of St. Clears, dated 24 April 1838, the farm and fields of Corse Gandrill were owned by John Williams. Unfortunately there are no names given on the Tithe Map itself, and only one of the fields is named as Corse Gandrill [sic.]. Could he be the John Williams, Minister at Bethlehem Chapel, St. Clears, in 1851? The farm was rented out to Thomas Lewis [IR 29/47/9 and IR 30/47/9]. John Williams owned no other land in the parish of St. Clears, according to the 1838 Tithe Schedule list.
The 1841 Census Return of St. Clears shows Thomas Lewis, aged ‘50’, living there with his wife, Elizabeth Lewis (aged ‘45’), and their children, John Lewis (aged 15) and David Lewis (aged 12) [HO 107/1382/1/24]. The Table below shows the field plots that made up the farm of Corse Gandrill in 1838, although it is not named as such on the Tithe Map or Schedule. The name is given to one of the fields but not to the house itself, but this practice is not uncommon on Tithe Maps. Further research can be carried out to see if any records relating to the farm and the land survive. It may be best to revisit the farm, armed with this new information and a picture of the map of the farm and talk again to the current owner.
THE EXTENT OF CORSE GANDRILL, ST. CLEARS, 1838
The area of the fields is given in acres, roods and perches. Four roods make 1 acre and 40 perches make 1 rood.
In the 1871 Census Cosecandrill [spelt thus] was occupied by John Hurlow, aged 28, an agricultural labourer, born at Warren, Pembs., together with his wife, Sarah Hurlow, aged 27 [RG 10/5494/12].
By November 1866, at the time of the birth of their daughter Anne Picton, Stephen and Mary Picton were living at Troed-y-rhiw farm in the parish of Llangynin, where they probably lived until the whole family emigrated to the USA in 1870. In the 1861 Census of Llangynin Troed-y-rhiw Farm was occupied by David John and his family [RG 9/4138/24]. The farm was 198 acres and employed 2 men and 2 boys. David John was 37 years of age [born 1823/4], and was born at Casbysar or Castysarn (?), Carmarthenshire. He was living with his wife, Sarah John, 6 children and also Sarah John, his aunt, a widow aged 87, a retired farmer’s wife, born at St. Clears and Elizabeth Harris, his mother-in-law, a widow aged 64, born at Llangynin. Their eldest child, Phoebe John, aged 16, was born at Llangynin in 1845 [Carmarthen, September 1845, 26 510]. David John married Sarah Harries in 1844 [Carmarthen, December 1844, 26 723]. Could he be the son of Thomas John, who was living there in the Tithe Schedule of 1838? Examination of the 1841 and 1851 Census Returns for Llangynin is the next step, as well as the 1844 marriage entry. By the time of the 1871 Census David John and his family had moved, of course, and were living at Lower Court Farm in the parish of Llanvihangel Abercowin, a 233 acre farm [RG 10/5496/59]. David John was a farmer aged 47, employing 3 labourers, and was born in Carmarthenshire. He was living at the same place in the 1881 and 1891 Census Returns, aged 57 and 67 respectively.
The Tithe Schedule for Llangynin [Llanginning] is at IR 29/47/52, dated 27 June 1838, and the Tithe Map is at IR 30/47/52, and was surveyed by Goode and Philpott, Surveyors of Haverfordwest. The Tithe Map was drawn at a scale of 6 chains [13.33 inches to the mile]. The total area of the parish of Llangynin was 3270 acres 1 rood and 6 perches, of which about 2850 acres was titheable; the roads and churchyards accounted for some of the remainder. In 1838 the farm of Troed-y-rhiw was owned by John Thomas Beynon and occupied by Thomas John. The family home was No. 368 on the Tithe Map, and the total area of the farm was just over 194 acres. Its general shape is quite long but not too wide, running basically west to east. The farmhouse lies towards the eastern boundary. Thomas John also occupied land owned by Edward West, with a total area of 42 acres 1 rood and 22 perches [Field Nos. not noted from the Tithe Schedule]. The chapel of Rhydycaesiaid also lies within this parish. The 1841 and 1851 Census Returns of Llangynin need to be examined for Troedyrhiw.
THE EXTENT OF TROED-Y-RHIW, LLANGYNIN, 1838
John Thomas Beynon owned the following properties within the parish of Llangynin.
The neighbouring farms to Troed-y-rhiw farm were the following:
By 1870 the whole Picton family had made the decision to emigrate to America. The economic circumstances in Carmarthenshire at this time need to be studied further, and local newspapers of the time could help. The Minister at Bethlehem Chapel, St. Clears, from 1869 to 1895 was the Revd. R. Morgan. The Picton family would have travelled probably by train to the port of Liverpool, perhaps going from St. Clears station via Carmarthen to Swansea and then either via the Central Wales Line to Shrewsbury, or down to Newport and up to Chester or Crewe and on to Liverpool. A little research needs to be conducted to confirm whether all these lines had been built by 1870, in particular the Central Wales Line from Swansea to Shrewsbury.
Stephen Picton sailed first to America in the steamship R.M.S. Cuba of 1534 tons, captained by Edwin Ramsay Moodie, which left from Liverpool and called also at Queenstown in Ireland. Stephen Picton took his two eldest children, Elizabeth Picton and James Picton, and they all travelled as steerage passengers. His age was given as 45 and the two children were 20 and 14 respectively, and, of course, they were all from Wales. They arrived in America at New York on 19 May 1870. There is an oil painting of the R.M.S. Cuba in the present ship the Queen Elizabeth II.
Eliza Picton followed in the Abyssinia, 2075 tons, with all the younger children, as steerage passengers. This vessel likewise sailed from Liverpool and Queenstown and arrived at New York on 17 August 1870. This was a newly built ship, having been constructed in 1870. It was later sold in 1880. The following information comes from the Illustrated London News of 3 December 1870.
The screw steam-ship Abyssinia is one of the latest additions to the fleet of the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company, popularly known as the Cunard Company. This noble vessel, of 3500 gross register tonnage, and with 600-horse power engines, was built very recently by Messrs. James and George Thomson, of the Clyde Bank Foundry, Glasgow, especially for the postal service between Great Britain and the United States. Her dimensions are 360 ft. length of keel, 42 ft. breadth (moulded), and 35 ft. 6in. in depth. Her engine-power was indicated by the Admiralty trial at 3150 horses, and her speed at 15 knots per hour. She has accommodation on the spar-deck for about 120 first-class passengers, the dining-saloons and sleeping-apartments for whom are very well lighted, heated, and ventilated, and for whose comfort and security neither trouble nor expense has been spared. On the spar-deck, too, are the kitchens, sculleries, pantries, ice-houses, bakery, and butchery, as well as the lavatories. The Abyssinia is provided with a male and female hospital and a dispensary. She is furnished with two sets of Normanby’s distilling apparatus, capable of producing 2000 gallons of fresh water each day. On the main and lower decks is accommodation for about 1000 third-class passengers, or, if need were, for a Regiment of two Battalions of soldiers. These decks, also, are admirably lighted, heated, and ventilated. In her holds the Abyssinia has a capacity of 80,000 cubic feet; and she can carry 1200 tons of coals in her bunkers. This vessel, like the other ships of the Cunard Company, has been built under special inspection; and the iron and other material used in her construction are of the same quality as those of the Russia. The hull is divided into eight water-tight compartments. In her general arrangement and equipment this vessel, with her sister ships the Algeria and Parthia, will fully maintain the well-earned reputation of the Cunard Company. It will be remembered that when the present Government agreed to renew the Cunard contract, last year, Mr. Burns, acting for that company, intimated that several new ships would be immediately contracted for in order to carry out the postal service in the manner in which it had been done by that company for the last thirty years, and that these new vessels would be ready for service during the currency of the present year. To redeem this pledge, four powerful steamships were contracted for, of which the Abyssinia is the representative type.
The family tradition is that Stephen and Eliza Picton and their family settled at a Welsh settlement north-east of Hiawatha in Brown County, Kansas. They stayed with friends until they found work. Stephen Picton and his son, James Picton, got work on the farm of David Evans. Stephen Picton can be found at Hiawatha, in Irwin township, Brown County, Kansas, the 1870 US Census, aged 45, when the Census was taken on 1 June 1870. Brown County, Kansas, in 1870 consisted of the five townships of Augusta, Claytonville, Irwin, Lachnane and Walnut Creek. The following is a list of people who gave Wales as their country of origin, and who were living at Hiawatha in Irwin township in the 1870 Census. There were 375 occupied homesteads in Irwin township, Hiawatha, at that date, containing 387 families. The total population of Irwin township was 2,300 people. The Census started on the 9 July 1870 and finished on 5 August 1870; clearly the enumerator took some time to get around everywhere. They are all listed in the 58 pages of the 1870 US Census. This research information does not support the family story that there was a strong Welsh community at Hiawatha in 1870; but it could be worth looking at the later Census Returns of 1880 and 1900 to see if it grew.
WELSH INHABITANTS OF HIAWATHA/IRWIN TOWNSHIP, KANSAS, 1870
David Evans emigrated to the USA on the S.S. City of Paris, which sailed from Liverpool and arrived at New York on 26 April 1869, captained by James Kennedy. The ship’s passenger list records: David Evans, aged 49, a miner; Ann Evans, aged 46, wife; Sarah Evans, aged 19; John Evans, aged 15; Mary A. Evans, aged 13; Jane Evans, aged 12; David Evans, aged 7; Margaret Evans, aged 6; Eleanor Evans, aged 4 and Thomas Evans, aged 2. Thomas Evans, aged 40, a miner, was also with them. The two children, William and Letitia Evans, seem to be missing from the list. David Evan’s obituary notice of 1903 agrees with the 1870 Census Return that he had three sons and seven daughters.
Daniel Samuel, a farmer of 100 acres, aged 45, was living at Llwyneyfarthwch farm, Llanelly, in the 1861 Census, born at Llanelly [RG 9/4113/79]. Also living with him were his wife, Margaret Samuel, aged 47, born at Llanelly and a large family: William Samuel, aged 21; Thomas Samuel, aged 17; Ann Samuel, aged 15; Margaret Samuel, aged 13; Mary Samuel, aged 10; Elizabeth Samuel, aged 9; Jonathan Samuel, aged 6 and David Samuel, aged 3. He is the only Daniel Samuel of approximately the right age recorded in the 1861 Census Returns for Wales. Daniel Samuel was living at Maesurdanen Fach farm, Llanelly, in the 1851 Census, a farmer of 55 acres, aged 35, born at Llanelly [HO 107/2468/144]. Also living with him was his wife, Margaret Samuel, aged 31, born at Llanelly, and their children William Samuel, aged 11; John Samuel, aged 9, Thomas Samuel, aged 7; Ann Samuel, aged 5; Margaret Samuel, aged 3 and Mary Samuel, aged 8 months.
THE WELSH IN PADONIA TOWNSHIP IN 1880
The 1880 Census for Padonia Township, Brown County. District 14, records 13 families with Welsh ancestry. These are the heads of the families with their ages.
WELSH INHABITANTS OF PADONIA TOWNSHIP, BROWN COUNTY, KANSAS, 1880
[Date of Arrival information is taken from 1900 US Census Return for Padonia township]
David Jones 27
David Bowen from Wales, aged 33, a farmer, born October 1866, was living at Padonia township in the 1900 Census. John Bowen from Wales, aged 34, born July 1865, was living at Padonia township in the 1900 Census. He entered the USA in 1888. He had a wife, Anne Bowen, aged 33, born in Wales in November 1866. They had three children, all born in Kansas from 1890 onwards.