July 2023

The information I present in this paper was gathered by myself listening to varies lectures on Youtube and by just thinking about the origin of our ancestors.  Man had to be able to communicate to become man.  This is the way I understand it.

I believe that gesturing with ones hands or making a sound came before the ability to speak a language and is the first form of communication.  Then mutations occurred that allowed man to move his mouth to make varies sounds.  All existing languages can be learned by any child.  A child by about the age of 5 knows enough language to communicate but does not have the ability to plan and pass ideas on until starting to become an adult.  Each child must learn the ability to pass on knowledge to the next generation.  I think that man learned enough language to communicate but did not spread out to the whole world until man developed the ability to plan and pass ideas on to the next generation.  Only humans have this ability to plan and pass ideas on to the next generation through language and gestures.  Many think this happened maybe as far back as 200,000 years ago or more.  There are now believed to be over 7,000 spoken languages in the world and all babies have the the ability to learn any one of these languages..

To become man, then man must have the ability to pass all his known knowledge learned onto the next generation.  Only man passes on what he has learned to the mind of the next generation.  All other living creatures except man do not pass on what they know to the next generation.  An animal can not related what has happen the previous day.  All other living things (animals) must rediscover and learn enough  knowledge to survive each new generation.  There are many mutations that has gone into the mans ability to speak and pass knowledge onto the next generation.  Some of these mutations are suggested in the following discussions.  One of the first was man developing the ability to walk upright and this freeing up mans hands so that he could gesture along with making sounds and tools.  Another is the physical ability to say words.  The size of the brain must have increased.  I say the brain must have been larger than now to give passing on knowledge a boast.  Man must have been smarter than now.  Man developed more persistence and the ability to stick to a project longer and not give up.  This aided him in hunting, in tool making and in developing language.  Man must have had more resistance to disease than now to give passing on knowledge a boast.  Man must have lived longer than now to give passing on knowledge a boast.  An examples is that women live longer now than men.  I think the reason women live longer is because of the need to pass knowledge onto the next generation through the maternal line.   Man had to develop a language to speak and understand.  Even knowing a language is still not enough because man must plan ahead to survive and pass the language on to future generations.  Man is the only living thing to pass on what he has learned to the next generation by word of mouth.  He learned tool making and passed it on.  He mastered fire and passed it on.   I suggest that the need to live longer, the need to have a larger brain and the need to have more intellectual ability was reduced by developing the ability to write things down and record them.  Living in a town or city I think requires less skills than one living individually on ones own.  I personally think we do not live as long or have as large a brain as before writing was invented or cities created because by selection there is less need so nature has reduced the size but whole knows.  Man exists because of his ability to pass knowledge onto the next generation.  I realize that all the ideas that I have discussed are open to debate and may not be exactly how it was.  Still, one should consider these ideas.

Also consider that in our past a mutation caused the theory of mind ability in a baby.  All babies come to realize that the other persons with them will realize when the baby makes a noise or points that the other person will react.  The other person will respond by doing something to help the baby.  The baby understands this.  No other living creature has this mind ability.  For a human to function adequately in this world our mind must learn as a baby to communicate.

The ancestors of early  humanity were many individuals scattered across the globe from Africa, Europe to Asia.  An unanswered question is when did our early ancestors start walking on two legs?  The first human like footprints are about 3.6 million years old found in Tanzania and more recently in other places around the world.  We are now the only ones alive because all of the other tribes or close branches have died off.  There are only bones from what many believe is our ancestor Homo Erectus who scattered and spread between Africa, Europe and Asia about two million to 900,000 years ago.  From Homo Erectus it is believed descended the main humanity tribes.  These main humanity tribes were Homo Sapiens, Neanderthals, Denisovans and a few other smaller groups from unique unknown ghost tribes from such places as China and Africa. A major characteristic of all these tribes was that they all seemed to enjoy sex and mixed it up between the different tribes. They produced offspring that past on the superior mutations.  Those with superior mutations beat out and killed the weaker descendants.  Only bones now exist for Neanderthals, Denisovans and early Homo Sapiens.  There bones show they had the physical ability to talk and hear.  Many believe that these ancestors eventually became very social and liked to communicate with each other   I like to believe that the strongest and best traits won out resulting in modern humanity and myself.

It is believed that our ancestors first lost there body hair about three million years ago.  This is based of the fact that human beings around the world have two different strains of body lice.  One body lice strain is in the hair on our head and the other in the hair in the pubic area.  The DNA difference in these two lice strains is that it would take three million years to make the current lice DNA difference between each strain.

Different tribes of early man developed and mutated differently at different speeds.   They intermarried, developed different new tribes and kept recycling in this cycle of development over hundred of thousands of years.  Some early tribes started making and improving tools.  Some early tribes mastered the use of fire.  The tribes would intermarry and pass the knowledge and secrets onto the their offspring and improving the knowledge.  More recently tribes went from hunter gathers, then hunted with dogs, and to farmers and herdsman.  Then man learned how to make metal such as copper, tin, lead and iron.  About the same time, villages, towns and cities started to appear in that order.

The Denisovans  tribe is believed to have descend from Homo Erectus about 700,000 to 900,000  years ago in Asia.  At least three different Denisovans tribes with slightly different DNA strains have contributed to the make up of the people of Asia.  The Neanderthals tribe are believed to have split off from the Denisovans about 400,000 years ago.  About 300,000 years ago the tribal branch that become the Homo Sapiens appeared in Africa.  The female Mitochondrial DNA that all female Homo Sapiens have, is believed originally inherited from the Denisovans.  All women today descend from one Homo Sapiens woman from the oldest X female chromosome called L and she is believed to have originated in Africa.  All women who are descended from the first female Homo Sapiens  who came out of Africa are descended from a woman who had the X chromosome L3 descendant from a single L female out of Africa.  It is not known if the first woman with X chromosome L3 was born in Africa or the Middle East (Levant). 

Now each of these tribes kept developing new,  better traits and accomplishing more.  All the branches developed better survival skills such as fire, turning rock into hunting weapons, better housing and clothing to keep warm and medicine.  To survive the Ice Ages, all our ancestor tribes had to have more brain power and bigger brains, fire, shelter  and warm clothing or they would have died.   It is stated that the brain size in skulls of Neanderthals, Denisovans and early Homo Sapiens were larger than the brain size in skulls of modern man.  Did we lose something?  Could added hunting and hearing skills have used this additional space?  What about the saying "Us it or Lose it"?

The Neanderthals existed in Europe for 350,000years until the Homo Sapiens came in about 50,000 years ago in the first wave, but the Homo Sapiens died out.  The Neanderthals were nomadic, usually lived in small groups of up to 30 people,  would go on hunts together, bring the large kills to one location to butcher and another location to store. The Neanderthals seemed to have better survival abilities in Europe's harsh weather conditions.  A second wave of Homo Sapiens came in about 42,000 years ago and mated with the Neanderthals.  Now both the pure blooded Homo Sapiens and  pure blooded Neanderthals died out leaving a combined Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals strain forming a unique early foundation group of people of Europe and the Middle EastSome believe that male Neanderthals mating with female Homo Sapiens did not produce any male offspring because no one has found people living today having Y male Neanderthal  DNA.  Some believe this cross breeding combination resulted in only females produced by this union.

Those members of humanity that have Rh negative blood, makeup only fifteen percent of the today's world population and all are of European ancestry.  A child born today from parents who both have Rh negative blood will live.  A Rh positive child born today from parents who have the mother with Rh negative blood and the father with Rh positive blood most likely will die unless medical action is taken to save the babies life.  Is this something inherited from Neanderthals?  I am lucky because both my parent had Rh negative blood so I lived.

There are at least three different groups of Neanderthals which come from such areas as Europe, Western Asia, the Middle East and the Sahara desert. Each location is a slightly different unique group.  Each group of Neanderthals would add there share of DNA to the human world gene pool.   Going East to China, the amount of Neanderthal decreases to almost zero.  It is estimated that 20 to 40 percent of the Neanderthal DNA is retained in the three percent modern European gene pool.

All humanity in the world today are mostly a Homo Sapiens high combination, but those in Asia have more Denisovans DNA than other areasAfrica has a lot smaller percentage of Neanderthals DNA than the rest of the world.  Africa also have some unique ghost DNA mixed in with there Homo Sapiens DNA.

This first man coming out of Africa theory  has much discussion for and against.   The oldest rock chips from stone age tool production, was made by the first human beings found in the Middle East area (where Europe, Asia and Africa come together).  The rock chips are at levels in the earth dated to about 200,000 years ago.  Some people believe that The Garden of Eden was located in the Middle East.  The largest volcano to have erupted in the last 200,000 years is located in Italy about 39,000 years ago.  Some believe that it may have killed off most of mankind including the Neanderthals 39,000 years ago in an area that extended from Russia to Africa.  This gave Homo Sapiens an area to make a fresh start in the Middle East.

Some believe a branch of the Homo Sapiens left Africa over 60,000 years ago, travailed to Asia, crossed with the Denisovans tribe, constructed an ocean going ship and arrived in Australia over 50, 000 years ago.  New research appears to show that man arrived in Australia over 80,000 years ago and had the ability to travel on the open ocean..  This is a known fact that no one can dispute and it is hard to believe. 

Another latter branch of Homo Sapiens  traveled out of Africa to Asia, crossed with  the Denisovans in China, plus some unique ghost DNA in Asia and forming the unique people of Asia.  The pure blooded Homo Sapiens and  pure blooded Denisovans died out leaving a combined mostly Homo Sapiens and some Denisovans strain forming the unique peoples of Asia.

Another branch of Homo Sapiens  traveled out of Africa to the Middle East with some ending up in the middle of Asia about 24,000 to 30,000 years ago.  These Homo Sapiens in the middle of Asia crossed with some Denisovans, forming a tribe which some believe split into two parts,  One part went to North and South America forming the American Indians.  The other part traveled to East of the Black Sea and became the Yamnaya tribe and then traveled into Europe and become the Europeans.

European people are made up of a combination of Homo Sapiens, Neanderthals, Denisovans tribes. Starting with Neanderthals, three percent of the current European ancestors comes from Neanderthal ancestors.   Europe  had at least 3 different population sources over the past 10,000 years. The first were the native population which were the hunters and gathers.  This was replaced by the farmers.  One of these was Otzi the 5,200 year old Ice Man who had six percent Neanderthal ancestry.  This leads us to believe that the farmers who came in were six percent Neanderthal.  About 5,000 years ago, tribes from East of the Black Sea called the Yamnaya started a move.  The Yamnaya tribe became known as the Indio-Europeans that spread from India to the Atlantic Ocean in Europe.  They brought into Europe, the horse, wheel, wagons, beer and the language used in Europe.  They were the third wave to move through Europe.  The result was that most  of the previous Europeans died off (almost all the males died) and they replaced the population.  No one actually knows what happen but there are a lot of theories.  They also reduced the amount of Neanderthal blood from six percent to the current three percent in the European population.  My male Y DNA is R-U106 which is believed by some to descend directly from the all Y male line of the Yamnaya tribe.  The Europeans are said to be more closely related to the American Indians by some than other groups. This is because the Homo Sapiens and Denisovans crossed and produced offspring in the middle of Asia about 24,000 to 30,000 years ago which ended up in the American Indians and Yamnaya tribe.

A question is did the other cousins and relatives of our ancestors die off because of lack of resources or were they killed by our ancestors?   I think it was survival of the fittest!!!

A final thing to think about is if the time from the date when our solar system was created down to the presented day had taken 10  percent longer, then Homo Sapiens would not have had time to develop because the sun in this additional future time will have caused the earth to become hotter and boiled off the oceans and we would be dead.

Owen Picton

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Last Modified July 2023

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