We recommend that you test at Family Tree DNA for STR markers because we
have an established Picton Project there and there is a discount involved. A DNA test will
indicate if you belong to the Picton families from Pembrokeshire. Please help and
contribute to our family knowledge pool by contacting us and sharing what information you
know about your own Picton family connections. We have DNA results from some Picton
families with origins other than Wales.
My 12 Marker STRs
The above DYS389-2: was 16 by the Genographic Project at National Geographic but when comparing to other DNA sites one must add ones results for 389-2 and 389-1 together and enter the total value for 389-2 which would be 29 for DYS389-2 when comparing to other sites. How to Interpret My Results
Above are results from the laboratory analysis of my Y-chromosome. My DNA was analyzed for Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), which are repeating segments of my genome that have a high mutation rate. The location on the Y chromosome of each of these markers is depicted in the image, with the number of repeats for each of your STRs presented to the right of the marker. For example, DYS19 is a repeat of TAGA, so if your DNA repeated that sequence 12 times at that location, it would appear: DYS19 12. Studying the combination of these STR lengths in your Y Chromosome allows researchers to place you in a haplogroup, which reveals the complex migratory journeys of your ancestors. Y-SNP: In the event that the analysis of your STRs was inconclusive, your Y chromosome was also tested for the presence of an informative Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP). These are mutational changes in a single nucleotide base, and allow researchers to definitively place you in a genetic haplogroup.
The 12 Marker result from the Y-chromosome test is called a Haplotype, and can help
determine how common is ones DNA sample.
A 12 Marker exact match result to someone with the SAME surname, means there is a high probability that you are related.
One is most likely "NOT recently related" on a 12 marker exact match result to someone else who does not have the same surname. The term "NOT recently related", may mean a time frame between 1000 to 2000 years ago or more.
The likelihood that we are related is much greater on a 43 marker match than on a 12 marker match, when checking matches on 12, 25, 37 or 43 markers.
Dr. Luigi Lucca Cavalli-Sforza, Professor Emeritus, Stanford University, in his book: The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolutions says that the total population of Europe was 60,000 people at the end of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago. Europe now has a population of 300 million people.
So sometimes European people alive today will have a 12 marker match with other Europeans from before the time that our ancestors began using surnames. Matching someone with a different surname most likely means the connection is distant rather then recent.
Not quite so simple. Mainly because most of our testing has been done with
DNA Heritage out to 43 markers. Nine of these markers do not overlap with FTDNA 1-37
We have 11 individuals to date in the database, including Owen Picton, who are clearly
related on the basis of the DNA results. We have two testers also who should be related
(both families from Pembrokeshire) - but are clearly NPEs (Non-Paternity Events),
unfortunately - and 3 Picton samples which clearly represent a totally different origin of
the surname; perhaps not too surprising given their locations, all of which are non-Welsh.
The initial aim should be to recruit and test at least one Picton candidate in each branch
of every Welsh Picton family, and longer-term ideally two candidates so that the genetic
signature of that branch can be defined relatively unambiguously.
We have marker DYS385b = 13 across all 11 people. Three of these, including Owen, have a
paper trail back to 1260 or thereabouts - but in fact descend from a common ancestor who
lived from 1713/4 to about 1793. I can find no evidence from paper records for an earlier
male branch point on this line going backwards, with a male line that survives down to the
present day, until you get to the 1400s and Jenkin Picton. There is one slight
possibility, but that is all. The fate of all other male branches is to die out.
All the rest of the Pictons of Pembrokeshire come from branches where it is difficult to
get back on paper before about 1750, principally because of the poor survival of parish
registers and transcripts in Wales. These results represent four separate lines at
present, already tested (Freystrop/Burton; Martletwy; Camrose; Haroldston West) and with
another four lines feasible (Carew; Cosheston; Haverfordwest; Llandisilio). The line which
contains Sir Thomas Picton also remains theoretically possible, but exceptionally difficult
to achieve in practice. Two of these four other lines have produced the NPE events
described earlier when tested. So we are trying to work round that by finding alternative
branches and candidates from the NPE line. This is a general process used in genetic
genealogy called triangulation on a selected ancestor by following different male pathways
to potential DNA candidates living today. One line has even taken the best part of 3 years
to locate a single DNA candidate. That individual was in Washington State, USA, and then
he turned out to be a NPE. The other NPE line, frustratingly, is my own Picton line
(Picton of Cosheston), as an Elizabeth Picton (1805-1882) was my g-g-grandmother. Again it
has taken me >2 years to locate an alternative candidate.
Owen S. Picton has DYS439 = 13; but this marker is quite variable within the whole group.
One of the other two testers who share a common ancestor with Owen in the eighteenth
century has 439 = 14 and the other is 13 as well. Most of the other Picton families have
439 = 12, but one has 439 = 13 also, and we have a paper trail connecting him to one of the
439 = 12 results. Until this result came in very recently, I used to think that 439 = 13 or
higher was specific to Owen's branch, but this idea now has to be revised. All this just
shows that DYS439 is is a very fast mutating marker, in our family at least.
YCAIIa = 21 is common across all 11 samples tested to date.
CDYb = 40 is an FTDNA-specific marker. Our other Picton candidate, has CDYb = 39.
DYS537 = 11 is an FTDNA-specific marker. Again our other candidate, has 537 = 10.
DYS481 = 21 is an FTDNA-specific marker, common to both Owen Picton and other
Other markers where the Picton of Whitechurch line and other Picton lines differ, plus
others, not discussed above are:
DYS 388 - we have three samples where this is 13 the other eight are 12.
DYS 444 - we have one sample out of eleven where this is 13, all the rest are 12.
DYS 461 - we have one sample out of eleven where this 13, all the rest are 12.
DYS464c - we have nine samples with 17, one with 16 and one with 15.
All other DYS 464 markers (a, b, d) are the same across all 11 samples.
GATA A10 we have Owen's family line of three samples with 15, all other samples are 14.
This is now the only marker which is specific to Owen's branch of the surname.
In addition to CDYb, above, we have DYS576 differing by one between Owen (18) and other
Picton (19) and also CDYa - which is 37 for Owen and 36 for other Picton.
The more markers one tests at FTDNA, the better the results. Testing 67 markers is better than 37 markers and 111 markers is better than 67 markers. Specifically, it is better to test the fast mutating markers DYS570, DYS576, CDYa and CDYb across all
samples, to provide extra discriminating power between branches of the surname. Additional FTDNA testing allows us to maintain the integrity of our
database but maximise the potential for assessing branching points between families, with
the goal of being able to extrapolate the order in which the STR changes occurred down the
Picton family tree and hence determine the branch-point for each line.
The Picton family tests positive for the SNP's U106/S21+, L48+, L47+, L44+, L163, L46+, L45+, L164, L237, L477, L493 and L525+. There may be more as more testing is done.
It has been established that the largest haplogroup among men of European
ancestry is R1b-M269. The subclade called U106/S21+ may represents 25% of the R1b-M269 male
population. It is estimated that the first U106/S21+ man lived 3,000 to 7,000 years ago.
Some think the first U106 man lived somewhere in the lower part of Sweden. There is much
debate about all this.
The Picton Family is part of this U106/S21+ subclade. My ancestors have been traced back
to Philip Picton born about the year 1260. All my male ancestors back and including Philip
Picton have to be Haplogroup U106 and have similar SNP markers. All different Picton lines
DNA tested thus far from Pembrokeshire, Wales show we are related and most likely share the
same ancestor line descending from Philip Picton. The problem is finding where the
different lines branched off my Picton line. Very few U106 famlies can trace there
ancestors back to the year 1240. This is what makes the Picton Family Tree back to the
year 1240 so important for doing research on the origins of U106.
The following information was displayed at Picton Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales and is the
earliest known reference of my name Picton:
Henry I (of England) settled a large force of Flemings, who had been displaced from
Flanders by inundations of the sea. In the centref of Rhos and the western half of
Wizo, the Flemish warlord seized the latter area, built a motte and bailey castle at
Wiston (Wizo’s ton or settlement) about 3 miles NNE of Picton, and this became his base
for the subjection of the area. At first his knights would have lived in his household at
Wiston, but after the pacification of the district they were planted on estates for FEES,
one of which was Picton. The original earth work castle of Picton stands a few hundred
yards East of the present castle entrance."
Could Wizo the Fleming or some of those with him be of the YDNA Haplogroup R1b-U106/S21+?
Was the ancestor of Philip Picton be with this group coming from Flanders?
A very early Welsh family tree said the ancestor of Philip Picton was a foreigner. Where
did the the first Picton in Pembrokeshire, Wales come from? Did he come from Flanders,
Normandy, or France? It is hoped that with additional DNA testing of individuals from
these locations that a match can be found. It is surprising that a close match with anyone
including anyone in Wales has not been found except those with the last name of
24,000-Year-Old Body Shows Kinship to Europeans and American Indians - Published by Roberta Estes
The article first gives information on the female mitochonrial DNA for the haplogroup that the boy has.
The article then also talks about the 24,000 year old male Y DNA Chromosome being an ancestor to haplogroup R which the Picton family belongs too. Could the ancestor to haplogroup R have spread out of India to both North to Siberia 24,000 years ago and also West to Europe by 5,000 years ago? Some believe that the ancestor to haplogroup R was in Malaysia 39,000 years ago, then traveled to India, then West to Europe. Languages in Europe are
and are believed to have come out of India. The 24,000 year old grave gives a hint where our Picton ancestors were nearly 24,000 years ago. Y DNA testing of graves in Europe has not found any males with Y DNA Chromosome haplogroup R older than 5,000. Those older than 5,000 years are something other than haplogroup R. Europe now has a male population that is about 30% to 40% haplogroup R. What happen to make all these men not haplogroup R in Europe disappear 5,000 years ago?
A more recent alternate theory is that the Indo-European people came from a European ghost population called ANE, (Ancient Northern Europeans) who many think came from a tribe of people called the Yamnaya Tribe that left there homeland about 8,000 years ago. The Yamnaya Tribe came from the Black Sea (Crimea, Ukraine area) with some going East into India and others going West to European. A Dr Hammer reported testing SNP samples. They now have 160 ancient YDNA samples (from Europe to the steppes of Russia) using atDNA in 2015 vs 74 last year which can be tested for SNP R1b. R1b is traced to ANE via a mass migration from this steppes of Russia in the Bronze Age. Several date this Yamnaya movement into Europe at 4,500 years ago. All of the Yamnaya samples are R1b but there were no R1b in the Yamnaya during the Ice Age. The R1b derives from East Asian group P. The East Asian group had to mix with the Yamnaya Tribe before they entered Europe so that the Yamnaya Tribe can bring R1b into Europe. R1b is the ancestor to the Y-DNA R-L477 Picton surname. Europe was settled by three groups which are:
WHG = Western Hunter Gatherers = more in Northern Europe
EEF = Early European Farmers = more in Southern Europe
ANE = Ancient North Eurasian, perhaps originally from Siberia by the Yamnaya Tribe
The Haplogroup R that made it to Europe divided with R1b being a major part that made it to Europe. R1b references have previously typically begun with R1b-M269. However, as a result of the recent discovery of its immediate subclade R1b-L23, and
L23's subclade L51, and L51's subclade L11 (the parent of U106 and P312), it has become
reasonably clear, despite somewhat smallish numbers, that M269 and its immediate subclade
L23, both characterized by the ancestral DYS STR 393=12, originated not far from the origin
of R1b itself, somewhere near the Caspian Sea.
They descend from groups on the North side of the Black Sea, who may have moved west anywhere between the Danube on the South and the Baltic shore on the North.
Some L23s made their way into Europe naturally, especially into Eastern Europe, the
Balkans, and notably, southern Italy.
Nevertheless, it now seems clear that the L23 subclade L51 is the start of a virtually
uniquely European form of R1b, which probably originated somewhere not far from Istanbul,
and which is also conveniently characterized by the extremely highly correlating change to
Consequently, with due respect to the small numbers of L23s in Europe, we can now begin
European originated R1b subclades with L51 and its 393=13 count.
Many believe that the L51 subclade L11 must have split into two groups, southeast of the
Alps, taking various rivers in different directions. The one for P312 and its subclades and
family SNPS comes first, followed by the one for our own U106.
The group that became P312 took the southern route south of the Alps, and somewhere near
the Riviera, P312 formed and flourished, and populated Spain, France, Britain, and
Meanwhile, the group that became U106 moved north of the Alps and then west on the Danube
towards the Rhine. Somehow the Picton family (who are U106) ended up in Wales
Realize that the following are only estimates based on the mutation rates
of the STR;s after a SNP was created.
The MRCA (most recent common ancestor) of the L45+ is about 131 AD.
The MRCA of the L44+ is about 1871 BC.
The MRCA of the L47+ is about 2347 BC.
The MRCA (most recent common ancestor) of the L48+ testers in the project is
about 2849 BC, and I would suggest that this person most likely lived in or not
too far from the Rhine valley.
The MRCA of the U106 project members lived about 3041 BC, perhaps not too far
from the Danube. The Danube, running east, and the Rhine, running north, reach
within 30 miles of one another north of western Switzerland.
The MRCA of U106 and P312, who would have been an L11, lived about 3041 BC,
perhaps not too far from the lower Danube, or in the upper Balkans.
The MRCA of that group and the L11* group, before 3041 BC, perhaps in the
The MRCA of the L11s and the L51* group, who would have been an L51, lived before 3041 BC, perhaps not too far from Istanbul.
The MRCA of the L51s and the L23* group, an L23, lived before 3041 BC in SW Asia,
perhaps not far from the Caspian Sea.
Somewhat less clear is the MRCA of the L23s and the M269* group, an M269, who
lived in that area before 3041 BC.
Since the recent discovery of the M269 SNP cascade running through L23 to
L11, I think from a general European R1b standpoint, or at least from a P312 and
U106 standpoint, it may make sense for most of us to start using L51 as a
sort-of base point. This is the group that highly correlates with the change to
393=13, instead of the previous 12, which highly correlates with the L23s found
much more in SW Asia, the Caucasus, and Russia, than in Central or Western
The L11*, L51*, and L23* testing groups are very small, so we have to be
careful. Vince is working with these testers, so that is ideal. AS far as I
know, L51 and L11 may be concentrated primarily in the Balkans. So certainly
from a further migration into Europe standpoint, the lower Danube would be an
obvious route, even though working upstream.
These dates and locations seem to make clear that old theories about the last
ice age, the Iberian peninsula, and the Baltic, don't work well with the "big
If we look at a good map of Europe in total, and we focus on Central Europe, the
Balkans, the Danube, the Alps, and the Rhine, we can gain a good picture of our
early L11 ancestors making their way through that central area about 1500 BC.
Ultimately, the P312s would dominate Spain, France, Britain, and Ireland, while
the smaller U106 would be more prevalent in the Netherlands, Germany, and
Austria, with a bit less concentration in Britain, Denmark, Switzerland, and the
Czech Republic, per the Myres study.
As always with genealogy, and genetic genealogy is not really too different in
that regard, everyone is free to imagine their own theories in areas where we
will perhaps never really know with a very high degree of certainty, what the
facts really are.
I thought for a long time, and rarely said so, that the old dating estimates for
our group were way too long into the past. Now I have become concerned that the
current dating estimates are starting to look too short! Was our group really
this late to arrive on the scene?
Your Y chromosome results identify you as a member of haplogroup R1b, a lineage defined by a genetic marker called M343. This haplogroup is the final destination of a genetic journey that began some 60,000 years ago with an ancient Y chromosome marker called M168.
The very widely dispersed M168 marker can be traced to a single individual"Eurasian Adam." This African man, who lived some 31,000 to 79,000 years ago, is the common ancestor of every non-African person living today. His descendants migrated out of Africa and became the only lineage to survive away from humanity's home continent.
Population growth during the Upper Paleolithic era may have spurred the M168 lineage to seek new hunting grounds for the plains animals crucial to their survival. A period of moist and favorable climate had expanded the ranges of such animals at this time, so these nomadic peoples may have simply followed their food source.
Improved tools and rudimentary art appeared during this same epoch, suggesting significant mental and behavioral changes. These shifts may have been spurred by a genetic mutation that gave "Eurasian Adam's" descendants a cognitive advantage over other contemporary, but now extinct, human lineages.
Some 90 to 95 percent of all non-Africans are descendants of the second great human migration out of Africa, which is defined by the marker M89.
M89 first appeared 45,000 years ago in Northern Africa or the Middle East. It arose on the original lineage (M168) of "Eurasian Adam," and defines a large inland migration of hunters who followed expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the Middle East.
Many people of this lineage remained in the Middle East, but others continued their movement and followed the grasslands through Iran to the vast steppes of Central Asia. Herds of buffalo, antelope, woolly mammoths, and other game probably enticed them to explore new grasslands.
With much of Earth's water frozen in massive ice sheets, the era's vast steppes stretched from eastern France to Korea. The grassland hunters of the M89 lineage traveled both east and west along this steppe "superhighway" and eventually peopled much of the continent.
A group of M89 descendants moved north from the Middle East to Anatolia and the Balkans, trading familiar grasslands for forests and high country. Though their numbers were likely small, genetic traces of their journey are still found today.
Some 40,000 years ago a man in Iran or southern Central Asia was born with a unique genetic marker known as M9, which marked a new lineage diverging from the M89 group. His descendants spent the next 30,000 years populating much of the planet.
Most residents of the Northern Hemisphere trace their roots to this unique individual, and carry his defining marker. Nearly all North Americans and East Asians have the M9 marker, as do most Europeans and many Indians. The haplogroup defined by M9, K, is known as the Eurasian Clan.
This large lineage dispersed gradually. Seasoned hunters followed the herds ever eastward, along a vast belt of Eurasian steppe, until the massive mountain ranges of south central Asia blocked their path.
The Hindu Kush, Tian Shan, and Himalaya, even more formidable during the era's ice age, divided eastward migrations. These migrations through the "Pamir Knot" region would subsequently become defined by additional genetic markers.
The marker M45 first appeared about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago in a man who became the common ancestor of most Europeans and nearly all Native Americans. This unique individual was part of the M9 lineage, which was moving to the north of the mountainous Hindu Kush and onto the game-rich steppes of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and southern Siberia.
The M45 lineage survived on these northern steppes even in the frigid Ice Age climate. While big game was plentiful, these resourceful hunters had to adapt their behavior to an increasingly hostile environment. They erected animal skin shelters and sewed weathertight clothing. They also refined the flint heads on their weapons to compensate for the scarcity of obsidian and other materials.
The intelligence that allowed this lineage to adapt and thrive in harsh conditions was critical to human survival in a region where no other hominids are known to have survived.
Members of haplogroup R are descendents of Europe's first large-scale human settlers. The lineage is defined by Y chromosome marker M173, which shows a westward journey of M45-carrying Central Asian steppe hunters.
The descendents of M173 arrived in Europe around 35,000 years ago and immediately began to make their own dramatic mark on the continent. Famous cave paintings, like those of Lascaux and Chauvet, signal the sudden arrival of humans with artistic skill. There are no artistic precedents or precursors to their appearance.
Soon after this lineage's arrival in Europe, the era of the Neandertals came to a close. Genetic evidence proves that these hominids were not human ancestors but an evolutionary dead end. Smarter, more resourceful human descendents of M173 likely outcompeted Neandertals for scarce Ice Age resources and thus heralded their demise.
The long journey of this lineage was further shaped by the preponderance of ice at this time. Humans were forced to southern refuges in Spain, Italy, and the Balkans. Years later, as the ice retreated, they moved north out of these isolated refuges and left an enduring, concentrated trail of the M173 marker in their wake.
Today, for example, the marker's frequency remains very high in northern France and the British Isleswhere it was carried by M173 descendents who had weathered the Ice Age in Spain.
Members of haplogroup R1b, defined by M343 are the direct descendents of Europe's first modern humansknown as the Cro-Magnon people.
Cro-Magnons arrived in Europe some 35,000 years ago, during a time when Neandertals still lived in the region. M343-carrying peoples made woven clothing and constructed huts to withstand the frigid climes of the Upper Paleolithic era. They used relatively advanced tools of stone, bone, and ivory. Jewelry, carvings, and intricate, colorful cave paintings bear witness to the Cro Magnons' surprisingly advanced culture during the last glacial age.
When the ice retreated genetically homogenous groups recolonized the north, where they are still found in high frequencies. Some 70 percent of men in southern England are R1b. In parts of Spain and Ireland that number exceeds 90 percent.
There are many sublineages within R1b that are yet to be defined. The Genographic Project hopes to bring future clarity to the disparate parts of this distinctive European lineage.