Three Biddle Brothers
Nicholas Biddle, Major Thomas Biddle and Major John Biddle
Played Roles of Westward Expansion in the United States
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This is how my family is connected. My ancestors, the Henry Biddle Family came from Sacramento, California where he had a mill that was destroyed by flooding and settled on a farm in about 1874 near a North South road (Praire Rd) Irving Township, Brown County, Kansas running toward Rulo, Nebraska (just a few miles from the Missouri River). This farm already had his brother (Thomas Biddle Family) living across the road South from him and his sister and husband (Sarah and Matthew Zahniser) living across the road East from him. His brother the Thomas Biddle Family first moved from Mercer County in 1863 to Illinois, then in about 1865 to Tama County Iowa, then in 1868 Iowa to Brown County, Kansas, then in 1881 to Axtel, Kansas. Jonathan Biddle, the Grandfather of Henry Biddle, Sarah (Biddle) Zahniser and Thomas Biddle had as his second cousins three brothers named Nicholas Biddle, Major Thomas Biddle and Major John Biddle. This would make the three siblings Henry Biddle, Sarah (Biddle) Zahniser and Thomas Biddle to be second cousins twice removed from the three Biddle brothers. The exploration of the nearby Missouri River about 50 to 60 years before Henry Biddle and his siblings arriving, had roles played by Nicholas Biddle, Major Thomas Biddle and Major John Biddle. One would think Henry Biddle and his siblings would be aware of the efforts these three distant cousins had made and it would have influenced them. My Biddle branch is the poorer Biddle branch but many still like to travel plus also buy and sell land. The following three paragraphs relate stories how the three Biddle brothers are connected to exploration of the Missouri River.
Nicholas Biddle at age 18 went to France to work on financial details of the Louisiana Purchase. Next Nicholas Biddle was the editor of "The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition" (one of the more important publications of the 19th century) where his effort was very important because these journals opened up the West and Henry Biddle may not have been there if not for this journal. Nicholas Biddle is the father of central banking in the United States and developed a trading system which became our stock exchanges. He became the president of the Second Bank of the United States ("The Bank") which has evolved into our current Federal Reserve System. "The Bank" was blamed for all financial problems and he was hated by everyone but now history is rewriting how he is viewed.
J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War ordered an Expedition lying West of the Allegheny and East of the Rocky Mountains by going up the Missouri River to
the Rocky Mountains for the Years 1819, 1820 under the Command
of Maj. S. H. Long. The expedition went up the Missouri River and setup a winter camp called "Engineer Cantonment" at a place a few miles South of a town we now call Fort Calhoun,
Nebraska (town named after J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War). Major
John Biddle was the official journalist of this expedition of 1819, but
he withdrew from this assignment before the end of the year because of a
situation that had happen to him. On the way up the Missouri River with the expedition, he and his party
had gone ashore and were captured by the Indians. The steamboat "Western Engineer" (page down to the article on Western Engineer) of the expedition did not
wait for them and continued on up the river to where they setup the winter camp at "Engineer Cantonment". The Indians robbed Major
John Biddle and his party of their horses and equipment and then released them. Major John Biddle and his party had
to then find their own way up the Missouri River to the expedition winter
camp and he was not a happy camper. Major John Biddle was discharged from the service in 1821. The steamboat "Western Engineer", had construction which was calculated to cause astonishment to the Indians. The bow of the boat was in the form of a giant sized serpent, having a carved head reared as high as the boat's deck. Smoke was forced out of the mouth of the monster causing a great roar heard for miles, and the craft was setup to appear as a huge serpent carrying the boat on its back with guns and canon pointing out the portholes. The expedition changed its plans after Major John Biddle left and went up the Platte River to explore to the Rocky Mountains then down the Arkansas River. This became known as Long's Expedition.
Major Thomas Biddle in 1820 was the paymaster at Fort Atkinson along the
Missouri River located in the town now called Fort Calhoun, Nebraska (a few
miles North of Omaha) at a place formally called Council Bluffs where Lewis and Clark had held council with the Indians. He died in a duel fought at St. Louis,
Mo., in which he killed Spencer Pettis (a Missouri Congressman), his
opponent, Aug. 29,1831 over an argument about his brother Nicholas
Biddle who had "The Bank" at Philadelphia, Pa. The two fought the duel
on an island in the middle of the Mississippi river as hundreds looked
on. As a result of Major Biddle's defective eyesight, the duel was
fought at a distance of five feet. The two promptly killed each other at
the first shot.
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